Study of Crude Emulsion Breaking Mechanism

This article discusses thecauses of emulsified crude oil produced, at the same time jeopardize review crude emulsion transfer process, emulsified oil gathering for former better breaking, breaking mechanism is proposed. To emulsify oil gathering better before breaking,the breaking mechanism is proposed.

In the oil mining process, when a block develop to the medium term, it often used water (steam injection) development measures to improve oil recovery, and at this time water (steam injection) Well Group of moisture will quickly rise, thus the emulsification crude appear.

Emulsified oilis defined by crude oil as the dispersed phase of the emulsion or liquid dispersion medium.W / O type emulsified crude oil emulsion is referred to as the dispersion medium,primary production and secondary recovery of oil emulsified crude oil are mostly W / O type emulsified crude oil,With crude oil as the dispersed phase of the emulsion called O / W emulsion oil.Tertiary oil recovery emulsified crude oil is mostly O / W emulsion of crude oil.

Each fieldin the process of exploitation of crude oil entering as late will encounter this problem, the crude oil emulsion becomes more stable because the crude oil resin and asphaltene content increases. In addition, with the development of new technologies, the composition of the crude oil becomes more complicated with plenty of surfactant flooding. Salt water oil recovery rate is increasing, and recovery of crude oil emulsion are mostly O / W emulsion of crude oil, crude oil dewatering and desalting it to put forward higher requirements. Because crude aqueous emulsion in the transport process will corrode pipelines, storage tanks and pump metal objects, can corrode metal, or surface structure these metal devices. Because crude oil emulsion, viscosity increases, friction increases, so before exporting crude emulsion technology through professional emulsified crude oil dehydration. Emulsified crude oil dehydration method commonly used are: thermal, chemical and electrical. These three methods are generally not used alone, often linking up with, which is the most widely used chemical method. Chemical emulsion crude oil dehydration is made to use a chemical agent that is demulsifiers, the annual amount of the country's current oil demulsifier about 20,000 tons.

Crude emulsiondehydration of the process is the use of chemical agents makes oil-water separation, and then by the principle of heavy water light oil, when crude oil come through a specific device so that the water sinking, oil and water separate.

2.1 Demulsifier demulsification mechanism of W / O emulsion oil

Low molecular weightchemical dehydrating agents are mostly water-soluble oil quality (HLB value> 8), with respect to the W / O type emulsified crude chemical dehydrating agent, it is the opposite type of chemicals between them, W / O emulsion breaking crude oil milk principle is actually a chemical action by canceling oil dehydrating agent to achieve the purpose of dehydration. And this chemical has the same effect as well as to offset the dehydrating agent in polymer chemistry crude oil soluble chemical dehydrating agent, for crude oil soluble demulsifier chemical dehydration agents are also efficient, we can imagine that it actually don’t rely on this role of the breaking principle. Polymer dehydration original chemical dehydrating agent mainly through the following effects:

2.1.1By forming theadsorption filmto complete

Becausecrude oil adsorption layer polymer chemistry dehydrating agent required to replace the interface formed after the original emulsifier, so this is not firmly adsorbed film, it’s not close, and relatively speaking the rotective effectwillbe much lower.

2.1.2 To the accumulation ofwater droplets

It has been able to gather water droplets is because there is a strong demulsifier polymer adsorption, its adsorption is adsorbed simultaneously on multiple drop interface caused by adsorption, these droplets will have more opportunities in collision together, pooling.

2.1.3 Solubilization mechanism

Demulsifierused a molecule or a few molecules to form micelles, the polymer coils or micellar solubilization emulsifier molecule can be, so that the separation of crude oil-water emulsions.

2.2 O/W principle crude emulsion breaking dehydration

Thisdehydration process is mainly through the electrolyte, low molecular weight alcohols, aggregate surface active agent compound to compound and complete, different components demulsifier produced, is also very different principles demulsification:

2.2.1Inthis electrolyte also played a significant role in reducing the negative charge through the surface of the oil droplets generated to and compatible with the principle of changing the shape of the emulsifier to complete.

2.2.2Low molecular alcohol is through a crude polarity increases, thereby decreasing the polarity of the water, so that the content of the emulsifier composition toward higher oil, or swim to the water content of the ingredients which play the role of dehydration.

2.2.3 Surfaceactive chemicals are produced by chemical reaction with an emulsifier, to form a firm adsorption film and not counteract, cause dehydration and demulsification.

2.2.4Aggregation compounds act primarily through the principle of breaking the connection. Because of the different components produced demulsifiers, breaking the principle of it is very different, so you have to use demulsifier compound configuration.


Demulsifieris essential in today's crude oil dehydration additives, as China's large oil into the high-water period, for how to ensure demulsifier demulsification process in its efficiency and economy is an urgent problem at this stage, because only this issue is resolved in order to meet the needs of oil field development and oil and gas gathering and transportation, in order to speed up the oil row
Booming industry

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