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Oil and gas exploration is the key technology for oil and gas industry. In the development of oil industry, oil and gas exploration technology is constantly being improved. Oil and gas exploration technologies include seismic exploration technology, drilling technology and well logging technology. It’s the core technology of oil and gas development. Oil and gas exploration technology is more importantunder the condition of complex topography and geology in our country. In this paper, the status quo of China's oil and gas exploration and analysis on specific application of new technologies to oil and gas exploration are expected to work as a reference for the study of technology in oil and gas industry.
In our vast land, there are many oil and gas energy, how to overcome the effects of the geographical environment on the oil and gas exploration, it’s currently focused on oil and gas exploration technology needed to solve the problem. Oil and gas exploration on the geological structure of the area need to conduct exploration to find if the oil and gas energy is located in earthquake zones, mine drilling technology and well logging technology is also essential to protect the safety of oil and gas exploitation. In recent years, our oil and gas exploration technology level has been significantly improved, in order to further improve the oil and gas exploration technology, relevant researchers still need to in-depth analysis of the application of new technology of oil and gas exploration.
1. Overview of oil and gas exploration technology status
1.1 shallow oil and gas exploration technology
Three-dimensional seismic exploration techniques is used in shallow oil and gas exploration currently. In the fine structure of the shallow reservoir analysis and forecasting, seismic exploration seismic data processing technology maintain a higher principle, the fidelity of the results of three-dimensional seismic cross sectional view of the greatly improved resolution of seismic data processing is to solve the shallow thin sandstone reservoir prediction problems. In the shallow oil and gas exploration relies on a directional well and horizontal well drilling technology. Compared to conventional vertical wells, the production of horizontal wells can be increased to a maximum 8 times. In the current drilling technology, the design of the wellbore and control technology has reached the international level, the relevant supporting drilling technology has also been improved. Oil and gas exploration in shallow logging technology is used in low permeability reservoirs conductive mechanism and log evaluation techniques in the analysis of low porosity and low permeability and low resistivity reservoirs causes the premise established three muddy sandstone porosity interpretation models, and the formation of the corresponding logging methods. In shallow oil and gas exploration technology is mainly used in the plains, such as in the north of Songliao Basin.
1.2 deep oil and gas exploration technology
Deep oil and gas exploration in the deep seismic exploration technology is different with in shallow due to the deep geological structure is very complex, the reflected signal is weak seismic exploration equipment, greater difficulty image formation, thus the deep seismic exploration technology to the refracted waves combined correction technology and near-surface model method to make deep image clearer. Deep oil and gas exploration and drilling technology is used in complex, in the deep high temperature environment to realize the high-speed mechanical drilling. According to the actual situation of deep oil and gas exploration,Logging technology is based on the theory of volcanic rock reservoir evaluation, is developed based on the analysis of the deep volcanic rock lithology logging interpretation technology, can effectively measure the oil and gas reserves.
1.3 Rift Basin oil and gas exploration technology
Fault basin of 3D seismic exploration technology have to deal with large reservoir depth, lithology changes, as well as fast lateral changes more complex structure problem, consistency in the earth's surface fine processing technology, the deep signal protection technology and 3D prestack depth migration velocity model on the basis of the bolt basin of three-dimensional seismic exploration technology can effectively improve the imaging effect. Fault basin of logging technology combined with the difficulty of complex lithology reservoir logging identification section through fuzzy associative memory technology, solve the end basin of deep well and deviated well formation production technical issues.
2. Application of new technologies and gas exploration
2.1 Drilling of new technologies
Nowadays the development of new drilling technology level is higher, the main three new drilling technology are air drilling, underbalance drilling and vertical drilling. The principle of air drilling is to use compressed air to take the underground rock cuttings to the ground, because of the difference of bottom hole pressure, air drilling is only applicable to high density and excluding water formation, at the same time must ensure the stability of borehole wall. Air drilling technology can increase mechanical drilling speed, at the same time, the borehole pressure is low, there will be no drilling fluid leakage problem, it has the characteristics of safety and high efficiency. Underbalanced drilling technology is reffer to in the process of drilling, drilling fluid column effect is lower than the formation pore pressure, the pressure of bottom hole formation fluid flow into the wellbore under control, then separate after get to the ground. Under-balanced drilling technology drilling rate is high, the reservoir damage is small, can effectively realize safe production. At low pressure and low permeability reservoirs, the use of underbalanced drilling technology is more efficient. Vertical depends on the rotary steering drilling technology, can improve the drilling speed in steep terrain region, to achieve full weight on bit drilling in high and steep structure area.
2.2 Logging of new technologies
In the complex issues of oil and gas exploration, logging technology develop a new casing logging, logging while drilling and borehole logging. Casing Resistivity Logging of new technologies is including of a combination of logging and production logging, Application of a new generation of casing logging technology, make casing logging has become the important part of the formation evaluation. In the case of openhole logs can’t be obtained, the casing formation evaluation logging can effectively enhance the effect, while monitoring the dynamic changes of formation fluids. With new drilling technology uses the drill logging resistivity imager instrument neutron density and orientation. Logging probe and drill location are closer, that can enhance the detection and guiding function. Imager can be capable of real-time analysis and processing, further improve the analytical capacity of the formation properties, neutron probe can measure the density of different borehole interval. The main features of openhole logging is a spectrum of new technologies and the spectrum of the measurement, the measurement results are generally available from a two-dimensional view to display.
2.3 seismic exploration of new technologies
Our structure is more complex because of the terrain, seismic exploration of new technology derived from the complex mountainous seismic technology, loess plateau and desert earthquake seismic technology and a series of specific technical seismic exploration techniques. Complex mountainous seismic techniques need to use a variety of means to collect seismic data in the relevant region, through research and field survey data to conduct a comprehensive analysis, most of the complex can be used by mountain complex mountainous seismic technology. Loess Plateau seismic technology is aimed primarily at the special geological structure of the yellow land, multi-regional de-noising technology, technology, and other hydrocarbon prediction techniques are based on the characteristics of a seismic survey conducted yellow earth innovation. Desert seismic technology to advanced technology and equipment together, according to the geological characteristics of sandy land, forming a flexible and change detection point and dunes curve correction and other highly characteristic of seismic exploration technology. The new seismic exploration techniques have a strong professional, it’s able to achieve better results in the special survey geological environment.
In summary, the oil and gas exploration technology has never been fixed, must be based on the actual geographical environment means to adjust the oil and gas exploration. To promote the development of China's oil and gas industry, oil and gas exploration technology research and development work to divide our good geographic region, depending on the geological conditions to adjust the direction of technological improvements, promote the improvement of the overall level of China's oil and gas exploration. Oil and gas exploration in the advancement of technology, the road of sustainable development of China's oil and gas industry will be more smooth.
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